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DefinitionsofModernART...1900-1945
The following table will allow to all to make sense of the jargon in the artistic movements of modern art. Post-Impressionism, Pointillism, Nabis, Fauvism, Modern Style, Naive Art, Precisionism, all these artistic movements are chronologically presented here, with a short explanation of what it is and also the artists that can't be ignored for each movement.
   
  Post-Impressionism 1900-1903 Paul Gauguin, Vincent Van Gogh, Emile Bernard, Paul Cézanne France. Simplification of the drawing. Space effects in aplats. Antinaturalist. Symbolic content.
   
  Pointillism Divisionism 1900-1906 Georges Seurat, Paul Signac, Henri-Edmond Cross France. Technique of employing a point of colour to create the maximum colour intensity.
   
  Nabis 1900 Edouard Vuillard, Maurice Denis, Chaïm Soutine, Félix Vallotton, Verkade, Ballin, Pierre Bonnard, Roussel Means 'prophets'. Paris, Pont-Aven. Influenced by the teachings of Gauguin, the japanism and the Pont-Aven's School.
   
  Fauvism 1900-1906 Georges Braque, André Derain, Raoul Dufy, Henri Matisse, Maurice De Vlaminck France. Use of pure colors. Simplification of forms and perspective.
   
  Art Nouveau Modern Style Jugendstil 1900-1914 Art Nouveau Modern Style Jugendstil 1900-1914 William Morris, Hector Guimard, Victor Horta, Hermann Obrist, Gustav Klimt, Mucha, Khnopff, Paul Ransont Europe and United States. Decorative style in architecture, decorative and graphic arts, painting and sculpture. Characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms.
   
  Naive Art 1900-1937 Le douanier Rousseau, le facteur Cheval, André Bouquet, Louis Vivin, Camille Bombois, André Bauchant France. Self-taught artists. Colored expression of a popular sensibility. They don't imitate the artistic trends of their time.
   
  Die Brücke 1905-1913 Fritz Bleyl, Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Otto Mueller, Emil Nolde, Max Pechstein, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Means 'the bridge'. Germany. It's a group of expressionists artists. Characterized by the intensely emotional and violent imagery.
   
  Expressionism 1905-1920 Emil Nolde, Otto Mueller, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Max Pechstein, Erich Heckel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Alexeï Von Jawlensky, Wassily Kandinsky, Gabriele Münter, Franz Marc, August Macke, Oskar Kokoschka, Egon Schiele, Chaim Soutine, Emil Filla, Béla Czobel, Edward Munch Especially in Germany. Formal simplifications . Intensity of the graphic expression. Vigour of the touch. Deeply influenced by primitive arts.
   
  Cubism 1908-1920 Pablo Picasso, Juan Gris, Alexandre Archipenko, Georges Braque, Albert Gleizes, Fernand Léger, Jacques Lipchitz, Jean Metzinger France. Influenced by the teachings of Cezanne and Negro-african art. Two phases. Analytic phase : use of several visual angles for a same object, Dissection on many multiple facets, limited range of colors. Synthetic phase: invention of collage and sticked paper.
   
  Futurism 1909-1915 Giacomo Balla, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carra, Luigi Russolo, Gino Severini, Ardengo Soffici Italy and Russia. Literary movement in origin which includes after painting, sculpture, photography and architecture. Aesthetic generated by the modern myth of the machine and of speed. Painters are influenced by Divisionism and Cubism.
   
  Section d'Or Golden Section 1911-1914 Marcel Duchamp, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Albert Gleizes, Frantisek Kupka, Fernand Léger, André Lhote, Jean Metzinger, Francis Picabia, Jacques Villon Paris. Identified with Cubism. Will to give a scientific turn in the pictorial researches.
   
  Blaue Reiter 1911-1914 Heinrich Campendonk, Lyonel Feininger, Alexeï von Jawlensky, Vassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, August Macke, Franz Marc, Gabriele Münter Means 'Blue Rider'. Germany. Where aesthetic register meets fauvism, abstraction, primitivism and expressionism.
   
  Orphism 1912-1914 Alice Bailly, Robert Delaunay, Sonia Delaunay, Marcel Duchamp, Frantisek Kupka, Francis Picabia, Jacques Villon Paris. Roots in Cubism with a tendency towards an abstract construction of forms with color.
   
  Ready-made 1913-1921 Marcel Duchamp New-York. Product of modern mass production which become an artwork as the artist chooses.
   
  Vorticism 1914-1917 David Bomberg, Alvin Langdon Coburn, Jacob Epstein, Henri Gaudier-Brzeska, Percy Wyndham Lewis, William Roberts, Edward Wadsworth England. Literature, painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture, photography. Double influence of cubism and futurism. Art find its source in the vortex of emotions.
   
  Precisionism 1920-1930 Charles Sheeler, Georgia O'Keeffe, Joseph Stella, Charles Demuth, Stuart Davis United States. Precision of the images. Figurative painting sharply defined, with geometric forms and flat planes.
   
  Suprematism 1915-1922 Kasimir Malevitch, Alexandra Exter, Ivan Vassilievitch Klioun, Lioubov Popova, Jean Pougny, Olga Rozanova, Alexandre Rodtchenko Russia. Purely aesthetic and concerned only with form, free from any political or social meaning. Purity of shape, particularly of the square. New realism in painting which implies the supremacy of this new art in relation to the past
   
  Dada 1916-1922 Hans Arp, Hugo Ball, Marcel Duchamp, Max Ernst, George Grosz, Raoul Hausmann, John Heartfield, Hannah Höch, Marcel Janco, Man Ray, Francis Picabia, Hans Richter, Kurt Schwitters, Sophie Taeuber-Arp Germany, France, United States. Provocation and derision during public events. Rejection of conventions in art and thought.
   
 

Metaphysical Painting

1917-1925 Giorgio De Chirico, Giorgio Morandi, Carlo D. Carrà Italia. Characterized by a recognizable iconography: a fictive space was created in the painting, modelled on illusionistic one-point perspective but deliberately subverted.

   
  De Stilj 1917-1932 Piet Mondrian, Gerrit Rietveld, Theo Van Doesburg, Georges Vantongerloo Germany. Means 'the style'. Characterized by the elementary components of the primary colours, flat, rectangular areas and only straight, horizontal and vertical lines.
   
  Purism 1918-1926 Le Corbusier, Amédée Ozenfant France. Painting and architecture. In reaction to Cubist painting. Admiration for the beauty and purity of the form of the machine. Characterized by the geometrical simplicity of outlines and by the search for pure forms.
   
  Neue Sachlichkeit New Objectivity 1918-1933 Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, Carl Grossberg, George Grosz, Carlo Mense, Christian Schad, Georg Scholz Germany. Characterized by a realistic style combined with a cynical, socially critical, philosophical stance.
   
  Bauhaus 1919-1933 Josef Albers, Herbert Bayer, Marcel Breuer, Walter Gropius, Johannes Itten, Vassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Hannes Meyer, Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy Germany. Integrates Expressionist art with the fields of design and architecture.
   
  Art Deco 1920-1939 Maurice Dufrêne, Jean Dunand, Francis Jourdain, Pierre Legrain, Robert Mallet-Stevens, André Mare, Jacques Emile Ruhlmann, Louis Süe France. Characterized by the straight line, the clear colors, the geometrical interpretation of the forms in nature and a tradition of elegance.
   
  Constructivism 1921-1928 Naum Gabo, El Lissitzky, Antoine Pevsner, Lioubov Popova, Alexandre Rodtchenko, Vladimir Tatline, Kasimir Malevitch Russia, Germany. Painting, sculpture, photography, literature, theatre and film. Geometric abstract art 'constructed' from autonomous visual elements as lines and plans. Characterized by precision, impersonality, a clear formal order and use of plastic and metal.
   
  Productivism 1923 Natalia Serguéïevna Gontcharova, Mikhaïl Fiodorovitch Larionov, Marc Chagall, Paul Mansouroff, Ilya Kabakov Russia. The artist is transformed into a producer of standard objects in the service of the new communist culture. The engineer get the upper hand and standards in production direct the artists to design, textile creation or graphic production.
   
  Surrealism 1924-1966 Salvador Dali, Max Ernst, Joan Miro, Yves Tanguy, Hans Bellmer, Jacques Hérold, Wilfredo Lam, René Magritte, Man Ray, André Masson, Roberto Matta, Echaurren, Meret Oppenheim, Wolfgang Paalen, Toyen, Raoul Ubac France, Belgia, Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, England, West Indies. Expression through automatism and through a sort of dreamlike fantastic. Inspired by the psychoanalytical discoveries of Freud and the political ideology of Marxism.
   
  Cercle et Carré 1929-1938 Joaquim Torrès-Garcia, Seuphor Paris. Opposition to the Surrealism. Characterized as broadly Constructivism in outlook.
   
  Concrete Art 1930-1945 Hélion, Carlsund, Tutundjian et Wantz France, Netherlands. Non- figurative painting and sculpture. Characterized by a construction entirely from purely plastic elements: planes and colours. Cerebral abstract works.
   
  Socialist Realism 1932-1945 Boris Mikhailovitch Koustodiev, Alexandr Mikhailovitch Guerassimov, Isaak Izraïlevitch Brodski, Gueorgui Gueorgueïevitch Russia. Dictatorship of the proletariat in the arts which were subordinated to the needs and dictates of the Communist Party. New art in order to 'depict reality in its revolutionary development'.
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